, three years after the bloodbath of the first World War and the devastating flu epidemic which followed, a large and difficult book descended on an unsuspecting Europe. It was written by the Swiss physician, psychiatrist, psychologist, and healer of souls, Professor Dr. Carl Gustav Jung. Published in German, its primary title was Psychologishe Typen
and the first edition sold out quickly. Two years later, it appeared in its first English translation by H. Godwin Baynes, an English physician who had gone to Switzerland to study with Jung. (Jung's Forward and Baynes’ Preface is available in Chapter 2 of The Mandala Typology.) The original had included an explanatory subtitle which read, in English translation, The Psychology Of Individuation. The English-speaking world was introduced to this massive treatise as Psychological Types Or The Psychology Of Individuation
. Of course, it reached North America immediately.
There had never been anything quite like it in the intellectual history of Europe. Types, as it came to be known, was reviewed in a wide range of national newspapers and professional and academic journals and over the next thirty years it was translated into every major world language.
Freud disliked it intensely. Without question, it was a difficult work conceptually, written in a style which offered little assistance to those who braved its six hundred plus pages. But for anyone who persevered, the rewards were exceptional, justifying the major expenditures of time and effort required for even a partial understanding. Jung, who was 46 at the time of initial publication, had presented a seminal exploration of what he called typical patterns
in how the consciousness of different personalities functioned. To make his case, he turned to the early and medieval history of Christianity, the work of a nobel prize winner in literature, the psychology of William James, the philosophy of Nietzsche, art criticism, the philosophies of India and China, and much more. That he was able to speak authoritatively in each area indicates the intellectual equipment Jung brought to his task.
Now, once you decide that there are typical patterns
observable in the conscious functioning of individuals, two more steps become necessary for pursuing the implications of the discovery: definition of those typical patterns
and then engagement in the process of pattern recognition.
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