The Mandala Typology of C.G Jung

Other Typologies

I do not regard the classification of types according to introversion and extraversion and the four basic functions as the only possible one. Any other psychological criterion could serve just as well as a classifier, although in my view, no other possesses so great a practical significance. C.G. Jung

“Psychological Types” and its close relatives, “Personality Types” and “Personality Styles” along with “Learning Styles” and “Teaching Styles” and a plethora of more distant relatives, have gradually become umbrella terms under which there reside literally dozens of typological models which are more or less “psychological” in nature. While many have been influenced by Jung’s work, there are many others which illustrate the generalization that you can develop a typology for almost anything you wish on any basis you choose.

There are literally hundreds of internet sites which outline alternative typologies dealing with some aspect of personality in a range of application areas. A random sampling of 27 alternatives with commentaries and links is provided in the ALTERNATIVE MODELS chapter of The Mandala Typology Of C.G. Jung And Its Literature, 1903 - 2007. I have purposely kept away from typologies which are strongly influenced by Jung’s model such as the MBTI model developed by Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers or its derivative by David Keirsey. It is interesting to note, however, that many of the models associated with the alternative typologies are quaternion in format.

For example, Japanese interest in blood types as the basis for a behavioral typology has migrated to North America and found expression in Peter Constantine’s What's Your Type?: How Blood Types are the Keys to Unlocking Your Personality. Animals have formed the foundation for several typologies and there are classification systems based on the points of the compass, the Amerindian Medicine Wheel, colour, diet and nutrition, brain styles, thinking styles, and emotional intelligence to name only a few. And lest one think that it is only our Western civilization which has been intrigued with “psychological” typologies to help understand human personality and behavior one need only look at those articulated in Buddhist philosophy and the Indian Ayurveda.

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